A mathematician has actually won the 2019 Prime Minister’s Reward for Science for her contributions to pure mathematics. Her work went on to impact how we keep details safe and secure on the web.
Emeritus Teacher Cheryl Praeger of the University of Western Australia got the $250,000 reward at Parliament Home this night together with other award winners in research study, development and mentor.
“Receiving the Prime Minister’s Prize for Science is a wonderful statement about how important mathematics is. It recognises the achievements of me, my colleagues and students in the mathematics of symmetry,” Teacher Praeger stated.
Much of her work has actually remained in the field of group theory, a branch of pure mathematics which handles part with concerns of proportion.
“I think symmetry is something we’re all familiar with, from the spiral galaxies to the tiny spiral shells on the beach,” Teacher Praeger stated. “In mathematics we measure symmetry via groups.”
These groups — collections of abstract items that can consist of routine numbers and which coalesce into styles and geometric shapes — underpin crucial systems of modern-day life.
They’re essential to public-crucial cryptography — the method you interact online or with your bank to keep details safe and secure.
“No-one visualized what massive effect this [early work in group theory] was going to have on our capability to comprehend symmetric structures in proportion, in nature, in mathematics and in science,” Teacher Praeger stated.
Another of her significant contributions to mathematics, in a body of work covering years and more than 400 journal publications, is the advancement of algorithms utilized in mathematical computer system systems worldwide.
Among Australia’s very first female mathematics teachers
Born in Toowoomba, Queensland, Teacher Praeger’s love of mathematics started in main school. However it was nearly blown off course by a profession advisor at the end of her academic year.
“Unfortunately, the adviser suggested that girls didn’t do maths and that I should consider a different career,” she stated.
At the University of Queensland, Teacher Praeger didn’t understand that females ran out the regular in mathematics at the time.
“In my university courses I had two women teachers, at the University of Queensland … I wasn’t aware this was unusual. So I was perhaps wilfully ignorant, or luckily ignorant about this — though I did notice it was a little more difficult to gain acceptance,” she stated.
She later on won a scholarship to research study at Oxford and turned into one of the very first woman teachers of mathematics in Australia in 1983.
“It was extraordinary – it changed the whole of my life and my career,” Teacher Praeger stated.
“I was invited to take part in many different programs and committees — the curriculum development council of the Federal Government, which was just being instituted at the time. I had a huge involvement in mathematics education as well as my mathematics research and teaching.”
Amongst her trainees was Teacher Akshay Venkatesh, winner of the 2018 Fields Medal. Teacher Praeger taught and mentored Venkatesh when he was a 13-year-old undergrad.
Quantum computing declares future obstacles
Looking to the future, Teacher Praeger’s delighted about the possibility of a quantum computer system and the obstacles it will bring for mathematics.
“If we are faced with a quantum computer, the mathematical challenges will be completely different from what they have been in the past and we will need really strong skills to face them. I look forward very much to this new change in our society,” Teacher Praeger stated.
“There are so many exciting careers and more and more problems will be coming up in the future which will need your expertise and commitment. Australia really needs you to help it through to a great future,” she stated.
A drug that ‘melts’ cancer
The 2nd significant award of the night – the Prime Minister’s Reward for Development – existed to a group of 4 researchers from Melbourne’s Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for their deal with venetoclax, a drug utilized to reward leukemia. Teacher David Huang, Teacher Peter Czabotar, Teacher Guillaume Lessene and Teacher Andrew Roberts will share the $250,000 reward.
Teacher Huang stated the story of venetoclax started in the 1980s, with a discovery made already PhD trainee David Vaux — now a teacher and deputy director of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute.
“The experiments he was doing were on cancer cells and he happened to neglect them over a weekend,” Teacher Huang stated.
“On his return to work, he realised these cells were still alive when they should all have been dead.”
Revealing the protein that kept the cells alive — a protein called BCL-2 — started years of operate in anti-cancer treatments. If researchers might interfere or neutralize the BCL-2, they may ‘turn the switch’ and eliminate the cancer cells.
“That’s what venetoclax is designed to do. It specifically works on turning off the activity of BCL-2. BCL-2 is often overactive in cancer – if you can switch it off, one hopes you could induce these cancer cells to die,” Teacher Huang stated.
From bench to bedside
Showing that concept and establishing a drug that might accomplish it securely took several years — however venetoclax is now readily available on the Pharmaceutical Advantages Plan for 2 blood cancers — persistent lymphocytic leukemia and specific kinds of severe myeloid leukemia.
“Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common leukemia in Australia and the commonest in the western world,” Teacher Huang stated.
“What we were able to see even in the first few patients, and subsequently confirmed in the bigger clinical trials, is that this is a drug that will work in this disease for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.”
The drug has actually revealed to work in clinical trials, with less adverse effects compared to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Teacher Huang stated the reward spoke to the significance of cooperation in science and the significance of standard clinical research study.
“I think what we’re doing with basic research is to try to understand these diseases much better, so we can develop much better, more specific, better tolerated and less toxic therapies,” he stated.
“Many thousands of researchers globally, including ones in Australia, are making a huge impact in this field. And I think we need to continue to encourage that.”