In partnership with scientists from Harvard University, scientists from the University of Würzburg have actually made an essential action on the roadway to topological quantum computer systems. Now, they provide their findings in the popular clinical journal Nature.
Majorana particles are really strange family members of primary particles. Very first forecasted in 1937 by the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana, these particles come from the group of so-called fermions, a group that likewise consists of electrons, neutrons and protons. Majorana fermions are electrically neutral and likewise their own anti-particles. These unique particles can, for instance, become quasi-particles in topological superconductors and represent perfect foundation for topological quantum computer systems.
Going to 2 measurements
On the roadway to such topological quantum computer systems based upon Majorana quasi-particles, physicists from the University of Würzburg together with associates from Harvard University (U.S.A.) have actually made an essential action: Whereas previous experiments in this field have actually primarily concentrated on one-dimensional systems, the groups from Würzburg and Harvard have actually been successful in going to two-dimensional systems.
In this partnership, the groups of Ewelina Hankiewicz (Theoretische Physik IV) and Laurens Molenkamp (Experimentelle Physik III) from the University of Würzburg collaborated with the groups of Amir Yacoby and Bertrand Halperin from Harvard University. Their findings exist in the present concern of the clinical journal Nature.
2 superconductors can streamline matters
„Understanding Majorana fermions is among the most extremely studied subjects in condensed matter physics,“ Ewelina Hankiewicz states. According to her, previous awareness have actually generally concentrated on one-dimensional systems such as nanowires. She discusses that a control of Majorana fermions is really hard in these setups. It would for that reason need considerable efforts to make Majorana fermions in these setups ultimately suitable for quantum computing.
In order to prevent a few of these troubles, the scientists have actually studied Majorana fermions in a two-dimensional system with strong spin-orbit coupling. „The system we examine is a so-called phase-controlled Josephson junction, that is, 2 superconductors that are separated by a regular area,“ Laurens Molenkamp discusses. The superconducting stage distinction in between the 2 superconductors offers an extra knob, that makes a complex fine-tuning of the other system specifications a minimum of partly unneeded.
Essential action towards an enhanced control
In the product studied, a mercury telluride quantum well paired to superconducting thin-film aluminium, the physicists observed for the very first time a topological stage shift which suggests the look of Majorana fermions in phase-controlled Josephson junctions. The setup recognized experimentally here makes up a flexible platform for the development, control and control of Majorana fermions, which provides numerous benefits compared to previous one-dimensional platforms. According to Hankiewicz, „this is an essential action towards an enhanced control of Majorana fermions.“ The evidence of idea of a topological superconductor based upon a two-dimensional Josephson junction opens brand-new possibilities for the research on Majorana fermions in condensed matter physics. In specific, numerous restrictions of previous awareness of Majorana fermions can be prevented.
Prospective transformation in computer system technology
At the very same time, an enhanced control of Majorana fermions represents an essential action towards topological quantum computer systems. In theory, such computer systems can be considerably more effective than standard computer systems. They hence have the possible to reinvent computer system technology.
Next, the scientists prepare to enhance the Josephson junctions and relocation towards junctions with narrower typical areas. Here, more localized Majorana fermions are anticipated. They even more study extra possibilities of controling Majorana fermions, for instance, by utilizing other semiconductors.