Matter waves and quantum splinters

Rice University physicists and associates in Austria and Brazil have actually revealed that shaking ultracold Bose-Einstein condensates (top) can trigger them to either divide into the consistent sectors particular of Faraday waves (center) or shatter into unforeseeable splinters (bottom). The frequency and amplitude of the shaking identifies the result. Credit: Gustavo Telles/University of São Paulo at São Carlos and Jason Nguyen/Rice University

Physicists in the United States, Austria and Brazil have actually revealed that shaking ultracold Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) can trigger them to either divide into consistent sectors or shatter into unforeseeable splinters, depending upon the frequency of the shaking.

“It’s remarkable that the same quantum system can give rise to such different phenomena,” stated Rice University physicist Randy Hulet, co-author of a research study about the work released online today in the journal Physical Evaluation X. Hulet’s laboratory carried out the research study’s experiments utilizing lithium BECs, small clouds of ultracold atoms that march in lockstep as if they are a single entity, or matter wave. “The relationship between these states can teach us a great deal about complex quantum many-body phenomena.”

The research study was carried out in cooperation with physicists at Austria’s Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) and Brazil’s University of São Paulo at São Carlos.

The experiments harken to Michael Faraday’s 1831 discovery that patterns of ripples were produced on the surface area of a fluid in a container that was shaken vertically at particular vital frequencies. The patterns, referred to as Faraday waves, resemble resonant modes produced on drumheads and vibrating plates.

To examine Faraday waves, the group restricted BECs to a direct one-dimensional waveguide, leading to a cigar-shaped BEC. The scientists then shook the BECs utilizing a weak, gradually oscillating electromagnetic field to regulate the strength of interactions in between atoms in the 1D waveguide. The Faraday pattern emerged when the frequency of modulation was tuned near a cumulative mode resonance.

However the group likewise saw something unanticipated: When the modulation was strong and the frequency was far listed below a Faraday resonance, the BEC burglarized “grains” of differing size. Rice research study researcher Jason Nguyen, lead co-author of the research study, discovered the grain sizes were broadly dispersed and continued for times even longer than the modulation time.

“Granulation is usually a random process that is observed in solids such as breaking glass, or the pulverizing of a stone into grains of different sizes,” stated research study co-author Axel Lode, who holds joint consultations at both TU Wien and the Wolfgang Pauli Institute at the University of Vienna.

Pictures Of the quantum state of the BEC equaled in each Faraday wave experiment. However in the granulation experiments the images looked totally various each time, despite the fact that the experiments were carried out under similar conditions.

Lode stated the variation in the granulation experiments developed from quantum connections—complex relationships in between quantum particles that are hard to explain mathematically.

“A theoretical description of the observations proved challenging because standard approaches were unable to reproduce the observations, particularly the broad distribution of grain sizes,” Lode stated. His group assisted analyze the speculative outcomes utilizing an advanced theoretical technique, and its execution in software application, which represented quantum variations and connections that common theories do not resolve.

Hulet, Rice’s Fayez Sarofim Teacher of Physics and Astronomy, and a member of the Rice Center for Quantum Products (RCQM), stated the outcomes have crucial ramifications for examinations of turbulence in quantum fluids, an unsolved issue in physics.

Check Out even more:
Quantum experiments probe underlying physics of rogue ocean waves

More info:
J. H. V. Nguyen et al, Parametric Excitation of a Bose-Einstein Condensate: From Faraday Waves to Granulation, Physical Evaluation X (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevx.9.011052

Journal referral:
Physical Evaluation X

Offered by:
Rice University

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