Lots of real-world complex systems consist of macroscopic subsystems which affect one another. This emerges, for instance, in completing or equally strengthening neural populations in the brain, spreading out characteristics of infections, and somewhere else. It is for that reason essential to comprehend how various kinds of inter-system interactions can affect general cumulative habits.
In 2010 considerable development was made when the theory of percolation on synergistic networks was presented by Prof. Shlomo Havlin and a group of scientists from the Department of Physics at Bar-Ilan University in a research study released in Nature. This design revealed that when nodes in one network depend upon nodes in another to function, devastating waterfalls of failures and abrupt structural shifts develop, as was observed in the electrical blackout that impacted much of Italy in 2003.
Synergistic percolation, nevertheless, is minimal to systems where performance is identified solely by connection, therefore supplying just a partial understanding to a wealth of real-world systems whose performance is specified according to dynamical guidelines.
Research study has actually revealed that 2 basic methods which nodes in one system can affect nodes in another one are connection (or cooperation), as in vital facilities or monetary networks, and antagonism (or competitors), as observed in eco-friendly systems, social networks, or in the human brain. Synergistic and competitive interactions may likewise take place at the same time, as observed in predator-prey relationships in eco-friendly systems, and in binocular competition in the brain.
In a paper released just recently in Nature Physics, Bar-Ilan University Prof. Havlin, and a group of scientists, consisting of Stefano Boccaletti, Ivan Bonamassa, and Michael M. Danziger, present a dynamic dependency framework that can record synergistic and competitive interactions in between dynamic systems which are utilized to research study synchronization and spreading out procedures in multilayer networks with communicating layers.
“This dynamic dependency framework provides a powerful tool to better understand many of the interacting complex systems which surround us,” composed Havlin and group. “The generalization of dependent interactions from percolation to dynamical systems allows for the development of new models for neural, social and technological systems that better capture the subtle ways in which different systems can affect one another.”
Prof. Havlin’s research study because 2000 has actually produced groundbreaking new mathematical techniques in network science which have actually led to comprehensive interdisciplinary research study in the field. Following Havlin’s and his associates’ publication of the theory of percolation, he got the American Physical Society’s Lilienfeld Reward, which is granted for “a most outstanding contribution to physics”. Previously this year he got the Israel Reward in Chemistry and Physics.
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Michael M. Danziger et al, Dynamic connection and competitors in multilayer networks, Nature Physics (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41567-018-0343-1